Heaviest 1-day rain in Oklahoma City history; 92L fizzles

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 14:45 GMT le 15 juin 2010

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Oklahoma City's rainiest day in history brought rampaging floods to the city and surrounding areas yesterday, as widespread rain amounts of 8 - 11 inches deluged the city. Fortunately, no confirmed deaths or injuries have been blamed on the mayhem, though damage is extensive. Oklahoma City's Will Rogers Airport received 7.62" of rain yesterday, smashing the record for the rainiest day in city history. According to the National Climatic Data Center, the city's previous rainiest day occurred September 22, 1970, when 7.53 inches fell. Some rivers continue to rise due to all the rain, and the Canadian River east of downtown Oklahoma City is four feet over flood stage, with major flooding expected today. You can track the flooding using our wundermap with the USGS Flood layer turned on.


Figure 1. Radar-estimated precipitation for the period June 14 - 15, 2010, during the Oklahoma City floods. A large swath of 8 - 10 inches of rain (dark red colors) was indicated, from Oklahoma City northeastwards.

An inordinate number of major U.S. floods this year
We've had an inordinate number of severe floods in the U.S. so far this year. The worst was the May Tennessee flood, which killed 31 people--the highest death toll from a non-tropical cyclone flooding event in the U.S. since 1994, and the most devastating disaster in Tennessee since the Civil War. The Tennessee floods were rated as a 1000-year flood for Middle Tennessee, West Tennessee, South Central and Western Kentucky and northern Mississippi. Two-day rain totals in some areas were greater than 19 inches.Last Friday's disastrous flash flood in Albert Pike Recreation Area, Arkansas, killed twenty people. That flood was triggered by 8+ inches of rain that fell in just a few hours over the rugged mountains west of Hot Springs. And in March, record rains from a slow-moving and extremely wet Nor'easter triggered historic flooding in Rhode Island and Southeastern Massachusetts, with several rivers exceeding their 100-year flood levels. The 16.32" of rain that fell on Providence, Rhode Island, made March that city's wettest month in recorded history.

All of these flooding events were associated with airmasses though brought record-breaking warm temperatures to surrounding regions of the country. For example, during the overnight hours when the June 11 flood in Arkansas occurred, fifty airports in the Southern and Midwestern U.S. had their highest minimum temperatures on record. During the 1000-year flood in Tennessee, 51 warm minimum temperatures records were set in the eastern half of the U.S. on May 1, and 97 records on May 2. Rhode Island's record wettest March also happened to be its record warmest March. And the air mass that spawned yesterday's Oklahoma City floods set record warm minimum temperatures at 22 airports across the central and Eastern portions of the U.S. on Monday. All this is not surprising, since more moisture can evaporate into warmer air, making record-setting rainfall events more likely when record warm temperatures are present. The total number of airports in the U.S. considered for these comparisons is around 500, so we're talking about significant portions of the U.S. being exposed to these record-breaking warm airmasses this year. For the spring months of March - May, it was the 21st warmest such period in the 116-year record, according to the National Climatic Data Center. At the 500 or so largest airports in the U.S., daily high temperature records outnumbered low temperature records by about a factor 2.5, 1200 to 508. Record high minimums this spring outnumbered record low maximums by 1163 to 568. So far in June, record daily highs have outpaced record lows by 176 to 13, and record high minimums have outpaced record low maximums, 419 to 62.

Flooding and global warming
Groisman et al. (2004) found that in the U.S. during the 20th century, there was a 16% increase in cold season (October - April) "heavy" precipitation events (greater than 2 inches in one day), a 25% increase in "very heavy" precipitation events (greater than 4 inches in one day), and a 36% rise in "extreme" precipitation events (those in the 99.9% percentile--1 in 1000 events.) A sharp rise in extreme precipitation is what is predicted by global warming models in the scientific literature Hegerl et al. (2004). According the landmark 2009 U.S. Climate Impact Report from the U.S. Global Change Research Program, "the amount of rain falling in the heaviest downpours has increased approximately 20 percent on average in the past century, and this trend is very likely to continue, with the largest increases in the wettest places." Most of this increase came since 1970, due to the approximate 1°F increase in U.S. average temperature since 1970. That 1°F increase in temperature means that there is 4% more moisture in the atmosphere, on average. According to the 2007 IPCC report, water vapor in the global atmosphere has increased by about 5% over the 20th century, and 4% since 1970. Satellite measurements (Trenberth et al., 2005) have shown a 1.3% per decade increase in water vapor over the global oceans since 1988. Santer et al. (2007) used a climate model to study the relative contribution of natural and human-caused effects on increasing water vapor, and concluded that this increase was "primarily due to human-caused increases in greenhouse gases". This was also the conclusion of Willet et al. (2007).

Dr. Joe Romm over at climateprogress.org has an excellent interview with Dr. Kevin Trenberth of the National Center of Atmospheric Research on the subject of heavy precipitation events and global warming. Dr. Trenberth is the world's leading expert on water vapor in the atmosphere, and he comments that "since the 1970s, on average, there's about a 4% increase in water vapor over the Atlantic Ocean, and when that gets caught into a storm, it invigorates the storm so the storm itself changes, and that can easily double the influence of that water vapor and so you can get up to an 8% increase, straight from the amount of water vapor that's sort of hanging around in the atmosphere. This is reasonably well established." Dr. Trenberth further comments, "Now the physical cause for this is very much related to the water vapor that flows into these storms. And these kinds of storms, well all storms for that matter, reach out on average--this is very much a gross average--about 4 times the radius or 16 times the area of the region that's precipitating, the rain. And for these kinds of storms a lot of the moisture is coming out of the sub-tropical Atlantic and even the tropical Atlantic; some of it comes out of the Gulf of Mexico. And so the moisture actually travels about 2000 miles where it gets caught up in these storms and then it rains down. And the key thing is, that in the tropical and sub-tropical Atlantic the sea temperatures are at very high levels and in fact they're the highest on record at the moment right in the eastern tropical Atlantic. It's going to be interesting to see what that does for this hurricane season coming up."

We cannot say that any of this year's flooding disasters were definitely due to global warming, and part of the reason for this year's numerous U.S. flooding disasters is simply bad luck. However, higher temperatures do cause an increased chance of heavy precipitation events, and it is likely that the flooding in some of this year's U.S. flooding disasters were significantly enhanced by the presence of more water vapor in the air due to global warming. We can expect a large increase in flooding disasters in the U.S. and worldwide if the climate continues to warm as expected.


Figure 2. A portable classroom building from a nearby high school floats past submerged cars on I-24 near Nashville, TN on May 1, 2010. One person died in the flooding in this region of I-24. Roughly 200 - 250 vehicles got submerged on this section of I-24, according to wunderphotographer laughingjester, who was a tow truck operator called in to clear out the stranded vehicles.

Funding issues threaten hundreds of streamgages
According to the USGS web site, river stage data from 292 streamgages has been discontinued recently, or is scheduled for elimination in the near future due to budget cuts. In Tennessee, 16 streamflow gages with records going back up to 85 years will stop collecting data on July 1 because of budget cuts. Five gages in Arkansas are slated for elimination this year. Hardest hit will be Pennsylvania, which will lose 30 of its 258 streamgages. With over 50 people dead from two flooding disasters already this year, now hardly seems to be the time to be skimping on monitoring river flow levels by cutting funding for hundreds of streamgages. These gages are critical for proper issuance of flood warnings to people in harm's way. Furthermore, most of the northern 2/3 of the U.S. can expect a much higher incidence of record flooding in coming decades. This will be driven by two factors: increased urban development causing faster run-off, and an increase in very heavy precipitation events due to global warming.


Figure 3. Streamgages that have been discontinued or are being considered for discontinuation or for conversion from continuous record discharge to stage-only stations. Funds for these 292 threatened streamgages are from the U.S. Geological Survey and other Federal, State, Tribal, and local agencies. For those streamgages that have already been discontinued, extensive efforts were made to find another funding source; however, when no funding was made available the streamgages had to be discontinued. If you have questions about specific streamgages, click on the state of concern on the USGS web page of threatened stream gages.

Dry air disrupting 92L
Invest 92L, which yesterday was a remarkably well-developed African tropical wave for so early in the season, has fizzled, due to dry air. Infrared satellite loops show the disturbance has lost nearly all of its heavy thunderstorms, and water vapor satellite loops show that the storm has wrapped a large amount of dry air to the west into the storm's center of circulation. With the storm continuing to track west-northwest to northwest into dryer air, the prospects for 92L developing into a tropical depression appear dim. With wind shear expected to rise from its current levels of 10 - 15 knots to 20 - 25 knots on Wednesday, the combination of shear and dry air should be able to pretty much destroy 92L on Wednesday. Shear values will likely increase to 30 - 40 knots by Friday, when 92L will move into the northern Lesser Antilles Islands. There is a window of opportunity this afternoon for 92L to fend off the dry air and organize into a tropical depression. One advantage the storm has it that it has developed a well-formed surface circulation. The low-level center of circulation is easy to spot on satellite imagery, since wind shear due to strong upper-level winds from the west have exposed the center to view. The National Hurricane Center is giving 92L a moderate (30% chance) of developing into a tropical depression by Thursday morning. I would put the chances a bit lower, at 20%. Even if 92L does develop into a tropical depression, it is highly unlikely to cause any trouble for the Lesser Antilles Islands, since wind shear and dry air will probably destroy the system before it can reach the islands.


Figure 4. Morning satellite image of Invest 92L. The low-level circulation is easy to spot on satellite imagery, since wind shear due to strong upper-level winds from the west have exposed the center to view. A small clump of heavy thunderstorms is located just east of the exposed center of circulation.

Elsewhere in the tropics
None of the reliable computer models is calling for tropical cyclone development in the Atlantic over the next seven days. There is a small swirl of low clouds visible in satellite imagery at 8N, 22W, just off the coast of Africa, associated with a tropical wave. This circulation is under wind shear of about 20 knots, which is probably too high for such a small circulation to survive in.

Oil spill wind and ocean current forecast
Light, predominantly southwesterly to westerly winds of 5 - 10 knots will blow in the northern Gulf of Mexico most of this week, according to the latest marine forecast from NOAA. The more westerly wind direction is expected to maintain a slow (1/2 mph) eastward-moving surface ocean current that will transport oil eastwards along the Florida Panhandle coast, according to the latest ocean current forecast from NOAA's HYCOM model. These winds and currents may be capable of transporting oil as far east as Panama City, Florida, by the end of the week. Oil will continue to threaten the coasts of Louisiana, Alabama, and Mississippi for the remainder of the week as well, according to the latest trajectory forecasts from NOAA and the State of Louisiana. The long range 8 - 16 day forecast from the GFS model indicates a typical summertime light wind regime, with winds mostly blowing out of the south or southeast. This wind regime will likely keep oil close to the coastal areas that have already seen oil impacts over the past two weeks.

NOAA has lauched a great new interactive mapping tool that allows one to overlay wind forecasts, ocean current forecasts, oil location, etc.

Oil spill resources
My post, What a hurricane would do the Deepwater Horizon oil spill
My post on the Southwest Florida "Forbidden Zone" where surface oil will rarely go
My post on what oil might do to a hurricane
NOAA has lauched a great new interactive mapping tool that allows one to overlay wi
nd forecasts, ocean current forecasts, oil location, etc.
Gulf Oil Blog from the UGA Department of Marine Sciences
Oil Spill Academic Task Force
University of South Florida Ocean Circulation Group oil spill forecasts
ROFFS Deepwater Horizon page
Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery from the University of Miami

"Hurricane Haven" airing again this afternoon
Tune into another airing of my live Internet radio show, "Hurricane Haven", at 4pm EDT today. Listeners will be able to call in and ask questions. The call in number is 415-983-2634, or you can post a question in the comments area on my blog. You can also email the questions to me today before the show: jmasters@wunderground.com. Be sure to include "Hurricane Haven question" in the subject line. Some topics I'll cover today on the show:

1) Why did 92L die so quickly?
2) Is the formation of 92L a harbinger of an active hurricane season?
3) What damage could a hurricane do to oil drilling platforms and underwater pipes at the bottom of the Gulf of Mexico?

Today's show, will be 1/2 hour, and you can tune in at http://www.wunderground.com/wxradio/wubroadcast.h tml. The show will be recorded and stored as a podcast.

Jeff Masters

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Hey guys after some research with the plots and the good handy google earth I found out that 92L is very much so moving WNW for all that have google earth that these and plot it out and tell me what you see keep an eye on the latest 5 plots (the one in bold

6.0N, 27.5W
6.1N, 28.4W
6.1N, 29.3W
6.2N, 30.1W
6.3N, 31.0W
6.4N, 32.1W
6.7N, 33.5W
7.1N, 34.9W
7.7N, 36.3W
8.4N, 37.6W
9.0N, 38.8W
9.7N, 39.9W
1O.5N, 41.0W
11.3N, 42.1W
12.2N, 43.2W
13.ON, 44.4W
13.6N, 45.7W
14.1N, 47.5W
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1530. xcool
HOTHOT SST 92L
Member Since: 26 septembre 2009 Posts: 2 Comments: 15684
1529. Levi32
Amazing that the deepest convection is actually expanding westward with the movement of the low-level center. The wind shear is not having a significant effect on this MCC. We could actually start seeing some deepening of the low pressure center because of this.

Member Since: 24 novembre 2005 Posts: 635 Comments: 26652
1528. leo305
Quoting scott39:
If it survives PR,ect.. where do you expect it to go after that?


it may or may not hit puerto rico.. nobody knows.. models say it will either move into the islands/bahamas/northern caribean
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting MiamiHurricanes09:
First of all lowest pressure is 1010 millibars and satellite imagery, microwave imagery, and 850 vorticity concludes that there is a closed surface low. And the reason that the convection rose is the fact that it went over SSTs that are 2˚C warmer than the SSTs it was yesterday.

AL, 92, 2010061600, , BEST, 0, 141N, 475W, 30, 1010, DB,


Pressure is 1011.4mb There is no surface circulation...its mostly in the midlevels. This T-Storm blow up will die off in the next 12hrs
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TCFA up for 92E
Member Since: 2 août 2007 Posts: 19 Comments: 19234
1525. scott39
Quoting Skyepony:
Amazing water temps. I've joked before areas of oil & drilling are magnets for strong Tropical Cyclones. Looking closer I think it's the added heat & maybe the gassing off of the oil that feeds them. I've seen where a buoy in a sheen was being double checked for unbelievable readings. Slummed the buoys & wow. One hit 96 today but there was several others close..


Looks like another wave is coming to play S of the BOC blob. 93E has formed south of there. This is going to farther hamper what is trying to build in the midlevels & work to the surface in the BOC. I give 93E a half decent chance. BOC has been, as expected, fun to watch..amazing despite the mjo forcing it down, at times it has had negative convergence underneath, yet still keeps firing. The SW flow is beginning to bring a tropical air mass here, foggy windows & all.

92L, like I said..wait for it. Would not be the least bit surprised as it is now getting past 45W to see this begin to really come together. PR, Hispaniola & all the little islands in between, if your not ready for season get ready tomorrow. Outside chance of a storm for you in 4 days.
If it survives PR,ect.. where do you expect it to go after that?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting atmoaggie:

Heck. I just finished a 15 hour day. Going to bed to do it all over again. But you know what? I have a dependable job doing what I enjoy, too.

In the perspective of those that do what they have to, rather than choose to, and those that haven't a job, well, this is pretty great.
I couldn't agree more.
Member Since: 2 septembre 2009 Posts: 130 Comments: 21194
Quoting KEEPEROFTHEGATE:
T.C.F.A.
INV/92/L/
MARK
14.9N/49.9W




14.9, Yikes.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Just did a blog on 92L.
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Quoting MiamiHurricanes09:
I agree completely and I wouldn't want to be anything else than a tropical meteorologist but this going to bed early this must suck a little.

Heck. I just finished a 15 hour day. Going to bed to do it all over again. But you know what? I have a dependable job doing what I enjoy, too.

In the perspective of those that do what they have to, rather than choose to, and those that haven't a job, well, this is pretty great.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Levi32:
03:15....expansion continues and cold-top hot towers remain.

Member Since: 2 septembre 2009 Posts: 130 Comments: 21194
Quoting scottsvb:
92L was probably a TD last night into this morning but it has become weak with pressures now closer to 1012mbs. Also there is no circulation with this. Its mostly a ESE,ENE wind. There is no NW or SW winds. 92L has become more of a midlevel system (like the carribean old TS 2 weeks ago) and its being enhanced by the upper trough over the carribean out to 50W.

Chance of this becoming a TD in the next 24hrs is under 20% and falling.
First of all lowest pressure is 1010 millibars and satellite imagery, microwave imagery, and 850 vorticity concludes that there is a closed surface low. And the reason that the convection rose is the fact that it went over SSTs that are 2˚C warmer than the SSTs it was yesterday.

AL, 92, 2010061600, , BEST, 0, 141N, 475W, 30, 1010, DB,
Member Since: 2 septembre 2009 Posts: 130 Comments: 21194
1516. KEEPEROFTHEGATE (Mod)
T.C.F.A.
INV/92/L/
MARK
14.9N/49.9W

Member Since: Posts: Comments:


AOI

AOI

AOI

AOI

TS BUSTED FORECAST ALIBI
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Levi32:
Back.

Rotation is almost evident within the MCC structure now, representing 92L's center.

Can see hints of it at the end of this loop


Yeah, just posted that a few minutes ago. Beginning to show some sustainability, but that will be tested as it continues moving west or west-northwest in the next 24 to 48 hours.
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1513. Levi32
03:15....expansion continues and cold-top hot towers remain.

Member Since: 24 novembre 2005 Posts: 635 Comments: 26652
Quoting HaboobsRsweet:

When you do what you love work doesnt suck.
I agree completely and I wouldn't want to be anything else than a tropical meteorologist but this going to bed early this must suck a little.
Member Since: 2 septembre 2009 Posts: 130 Comments: 21194
1511. Levi32
Quoting scott39:
If it makes it to land, will it be mountainous?


Puerto Rico, Hispaniola, and Cuba are all very mountainous, and destroy many tropical systems.
Member Since: 24 novembre 2005 Posts: 635 Comments: 26652
1510. Skyepony (Mod)
Amazing water temps. I've joked before areas of oil & drilling are magnets for strong Tropical Cyclones. Looking closer I think it's the added heat & maybe the gassing off of the oil that feeds them. I've seen where a buoy in a sheen was being double checked for unbelievable readings. Slummed the buoys & wow. One hit 96 today but there was several others close..


Looks like another wave is coming to play S of the BOC blob. 93E has formed south of there. This is going to farther hamper what is trying to build in the midlevels & work to the surface in the BOC. I give 93E a half decent chance. BOC has been, as expected, fun to watch..amazing despite the mjo forcing it down, at times it has had negative convergence underneath, yet still keeps firing. The SW flow is beginning to bring a tropical air mass here, foggy windows & all.

92L, like I said..wait for it. Would not be the least bit surprised as it is now getting past 45W to see this begin to really come together. PR, Hispaniola & all the little islands in between, if your not ready for season get ready tomorrow. Outside chance of a storm for you in 4 days.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
03:15Z

Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1508. Levi32
Back.

Rotation is almost evident within the MCC structure now, representing 92L's center.

Can see hints of it at the end of this loop
Member Since: 24 novembre 2005 Posts: 635 Comments: 26652
Quoting cchsweatherman:
In analyzing recent satellite imagery, the closed circulation center now is completely covered by this deep convective burst, or MCS like others have been calling this. It appears the most intense thunderstorms comprise the northern and eastern circulation and appears to be trying to wrap around the southern side. Definitely attempting to organize and develop. Just gotta wait and see whether this continues.
The shear (TUTT) is forecasted to lift some towards the subtropical Atlantic this should help 92L intensify. You can either view it through the latest GFS 200 millibar forecasts or Cimss shear tendency maps.

00z Cimss shear tendency...



Expect a decrease of 10-20 knots of wind shear over 92L. It also seems that there is a weak anticyclone that can be noted on the latest shear maps.
Member Since: 2 septembre 2009 Posts: 130 Comments: 21194
92L was probably a TD last night into this morning but it has become weak with pressures now closer to 1012mbs. Also there is no circulation with this. Its mostly a ESE,ENE wind. There is no NW or SW winds. 92L has become more of a midlevel system (like the carribean old TS 2 weeks ago) and its being enhanced by the upper trough over the carribean out to 50W.

Chance of this becoming a TD in the next 24hrs is under 20% and falling.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1505. scott39
Quoting Levi32:


If it remains at this intensity, likely WNW across the lesser Antilles and then near most of the big Caribbean islands before eventually emerging in the NW Caribbean or Gulf of Mexico, if its circulation remains intact after all the land interaction.
If it makes it to land, will it be mountainous?
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Obviously.. 92L is NO LONGER ANOREXIC
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Starting to near the islands.
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Latest sat. pics remind me of Fay. Went to bed and it looked like nothing. Woke up and a huge blob headed towards Fla.
Member Since: 10 septembre 2007 Posts: 0 Comments: 11253
Quoting MiamiHurricanes09:
That sucks.

When you do what you love work doesnt suck.
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The 3:15 UTC image taking a long time too.
Member Since: 2 septembre 2009 Posts: 130 Comments: 21194
In analyzing recent satellite imagery, the closed circulation center now is completely covered by this deep convective burst, or MCS like others have been calling this. It appears the most intense thunderstorms comprise the northern and eastern circulation and appears to be trying to wrap around the southern side. Definitely attempting to organize and develop. Just gotta wait and see whether this continues.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting leo305:


what happened with TS Erica?


It blew up one night with a huge puff of convection in midst of shear and then fell apart over the next two days.

But shear is decreasing around part of it so...
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Quoting HaboobsRsweet:

I am headed to bed...I dont stay up to chase thunderstorms. Plus got to work early.
That sucks.
Member Since: 2 septembre 2009 Posts: 130 Comments: 21194
92L, will you develop or not? Quit teasing us! LOL
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Quoting MiamiHurricanes09:
Yeah, I'm probably going to be up a couple more hours before I head to bed.

I am headed to bed...I dont stay up to chase thunderstorms. Plus got to work early.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting CaribBoy:


He is really pationned, that's good.
Absolutely.
Member Since: 2 septembre 2009 Posts: 130 Comments: 21194
Quoting atmoaggie:


Don't bee fooled by the title/subtitle. All atmo physics covered...down to cloud micro.

Yup...as all as all the chemistry as well. We had a cool lab with that class.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting MZV:
Have to say it looks better than this time last night. Not gonna stay up on a Tuesday to follow it though, will look in the morning
Yeah, I'm probably going to be up a couple more hours before I head to bed.
Member Since: 2 septembre 2009 Posts: 130 Comments: 21194
1488. 7544
Quoting jasoniscoolman09:
wow..


ill second that wow
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1487. leo305
Quoting ElConando:
What if we are being fooled like with TS Erica?


what happened with TS Erica?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1486. GetReal



92L seems to have found a small window of low shear, and is taking advantage of that oppurtunity.
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Quoting MiamiHurricanes09:
LOL, sacrificing food for a system 5000 miles away. Priceless.


He is really pationned, that's good.
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Zoomed in of 92L's MCS.

Member Since: 2 septembre 2009 Posts: 130 Comments: 21194
Quoting atmoaggie:

I use this one sometimes, too. Everything...



Don't be fooled by the title/subtitle. All atmo physics covered...down to cloud micro.

(*slap*, modify, not quote...tired)
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1481. Grothar
Quoting atmoaggie:

I use this one sometimes, too. Everything...




Any relation to Jerry?
Member Since: 17 juillet 2009 Posts: 71 Comments: 26381

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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

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