April 2012: Earth's 5th warmest on record

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 12:00 GMT le 18 mai 2012

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April 2012 was the globe's 5th warmest April on record, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). NASA rated April 2012 as the 4th warmest April on record. April 2012 global land temperatures were the 2nd warmest on record, and the Northern Hemisphere land surface temperature was 1.74°C (3.13°F) above the 20th century average, marking the warmest April since records began in 1880. Global ocean temperatures were the 11th warmest on record, and April 2012 was the 427th consecutive month with ocean temperatures warmer than the 20th century average. The last time the ocean temperatures were below average was September 1976. The increase in global temperatures relative to average compared to March 2012 (16th warmest March on record) was due, in part, to warming waters in the Eastern Pacific, due to the La Niña event that ended in April. Global satellite-measured temperatures for the lowest 8 km of the atmosphere were 6th or 4th warmest in the 34-year record, according to Remote Sensing Systems and the University of Alabama Huntsville (UAH). April temperatures in the stratosphere were the 1st to 4th coldest on record. We expect cold temperatures there due to the greenhouse effect and to destruction of ozone due to CFC pollution. Northern Hemisphere snow cover during April was 4th smallest in the 46-year record. Wunderground's weather historian, Christopher C. Burt, has a comprehensive post on the notable weather events of April in his April 2012 Global Weather Extremes Summary. Notably, national heat records (for warmest April temperature on record) occurred in the United States (a tie), Germany, Austria, Poland, Belarus, Lithuania, Moldova, Hungry, Croatia, Ukraine, and Slovakia as well as the cities of Moscow and Munich.


Figure 1. Departure of temperature from average for April 2012. The most notable extremes were the warmth observed across Russia, the United States, Alaska, and parts of the Middle East and eastern Europe. There were no land areas with large-scale cold conditions of note. Image credit: National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) .

La Niña officially ends
According to NOAA's Climate Prediction Center (CPC), La Niña conditions are no longer present in the equatorial Pacific, where sea surface temperatures were approximately average as of May 13. The threshold for a La Niña is for these temperatures to be 0.5°C below average or cooler. CPC forecasts that neutral conditions will persist though the summer, with a 41% chance of an El Niño event developing in time for the August - September - October peak of hurricane season. El Niño conditions tend to decrease Atlantic hurricane activity, by increasing wind shear over the tropical Atlantic.


Figure 2. Arctic sea ice extent in 2012 (blue line) compared to the average (thick grey line.) The record low year of 2007 (dashed green line) is also shown. Arctic sea ice was near average during April, but has fallen well below average during the first half of May. Image credit: National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC).

April Arctic sea ice extent near average
Arctic sea ice extent was near average in April 2012, the 17th lowest (18th greatest) extent in the 35-year satellite record, according to the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). This was the largest April Arctic sea ice extent since 2001. However, ice in the Arctic is increasingly young, thin ice, which will make it easy for this year's ice to melt away to near-record low levels this summer, if warmer than average weather occurs in the Arctic.


Figure 2. Mt. St. Helens in Washington State erupting on May 18, 1980. Image credit: USGS.

Anniversary of the eruption of Mt. St. Helens
Today is the 32nd anniversary of the May 18th, 1980 eruption of Mt. St. Helens in Washington State. To mark the occasion, NASA has put together a cool Landsat satellite time lapse of 32 years of regrowth of surrounding forest. The USGS has an extensive informational site on the eruption.


Video 1. In Grand Isle, Louisiana last week, a large waterspout came ashore as an EF-1 tornado. The tornado ripped the roof off of the house across the street from this videographer, who should have taken shelter instead of filming the destruction. There's one 4-letter word in the video. Thanks go to Andrew Freedman of Climate Central for posting this.

Have a great weekend, everyone! I'll be back Sunday or Monday with a new post.

Jeff Masters

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812. Articuno
19:30 GMT le 19 mai 2012
Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:
What will invest 93L get at the next Special Tropical Weather Outlook?

A) Low chance (<30%)
B) Medium chance (30-50%)
C) High chance (>50%)
D) Subtropical depression/storm designation

I say B.

I say C based on how it looks now.
Man this came out of nowhere. O_o
I need to start "blob tracking".
Member Since: 22 octobre 2011 Posts: 0 Comments: 2553
811. interstatelover7165
18:46 GMT le 19 mai 2012
Dr. Rick Knabb, The Weather Channel's resident hurricane expert, has been named the new director of the National Hurricane Center in Miami.

Dr. Knabb joined The Weather Channel in May 2010 and shared his expertise with TWC's audience through the 2010 and 2011 hurricane seasons.

Dr. Knabb, who was raised the Fort Lauderdale area, said he is excited about his new position and is aware of the importance of the role.

"I had enough time at the Hurricane Center to know what the job involves. That includes being available for television networks. Chances are, you'll still see me a lot on The Weather Channel still," Dr. Knabb said.

Play Video
New Hurricane Center Director From TWCAutoplay OnOff
New Hurricane Center Director From TWC The Science behind Hurricane Hunters TWC bloopers: 30 years of funny A look back at 2011 hurricane season Dr. Knabb looks at 2011 hurricane season Could System Become Alberto? Watch Ferry Hit Building Release the ‘Quack'ens, Duck Pest Control Rocket Fails to Liftoff Raw: Gator Attacks Man New Surveillance Video of Joplin Tornado Secrets Behind a Slurpee Butterflies Dig Warm Weather Science Behind the Weekend Solar Eclipse Horse Rescued from Pacific Severe Weather Threat Grilling Tips From Char-Broil New Hurricane Center Director From TWC Tornado Hunt Resumes Latest Forecast for Severe Weather Dust Devil Frisbee Rocks in Pocket Set Shorts on Fire Swallows Missing from Capistrano A National Look at the Next 3 Days Fire Evacuees Camp Out and Watch Flames Drought Takes Toll on Cattle Ranchers Firefighter Falls Into Burning Building Lightning Safety Tips Bees Take Over Tree Limb Half Marathon Goes on After Tornado 19th Century Shipwreck Kitty Cam: Your Cat's Secret Life Winds Push Wildfire Rain Makes Dent on Drought Fire-Peeping Climber Rescued Crystal Clear Image of Earth Grand Isle Destruction Caught On Camera Death Valley Dust Devil Rain Brings Back Visitors, Business Lightning Sparks Chemical Plant Fire Good Samaritans Save Family AZ Fire: I-Mets to the Rescue! Joplin: Rescue Dog Turns Rescuer Joplin High: One Year Later Water sports in the Outer Banks Mama Duck Takes Kids to the Mall An Eco-Friendly Solution to Wildfires Teen Driving: 100 Deadliest Days Wx Warnings Coming To a Phone Near You Wildfire Season Starts Early Lightning Hits Car Most Incredible Storm Chasing Moment More Travelers Memorial Day Weekend Time-lapse of Arizona Haboob Riding Out a Dust Storm Close Encounter: Manatees Swim Up to Shore Live Video Stream Caught on tape: Metrodome roof collapse The new Weather.com: Just for you Your videos of 2011 tornadoes A year of deadly weather caught on cam Deadly Tornado Flashback Caught in the Storm: Wild weather moments Killer Countdown: 2011's tornado season Winter's wildest rides Wild moments caught on cam Send us your videos. It's easy! Become TWC Social
Bob Walker, executive vice president and general manger, networks and content of TWCC, congratulated Dr. Knabb on his new position.

"Rick’s expertise and skill in forecasting and his passion for communicating the science behind tropical weather made him a great addition to our expert team. While we hate to see Rick leave The Weather Channel, it’s just another example of the fact that some of the best people working in weather can be found at TWCC," Walker said.

Dr. Knabb said he will miss his Weather Channel colleagues. "They are real people with families doing a very difficult job. TV is hard, and I respect what they do everyday."

Weather has always been his passion.

"Like many meteorologists, I've been interested in the weather for as long as I can remember," Dr. Knabb said. "I never seriously considered any other profession. I remember as a child being afraid of lightning, tornadoes, and hurricanes, and decided I wanted to learn what makes those things tick."

His advice for his audience?

"Hurricanes are part of the reality of living in many parts of the U.S. If you live near the Gulf of Mexico or the Atlantic coast, don't ever think that it can't happen to you. Prepare today for what you'll do when a hurricane comes your way," Dr. Knabb said.

As a senior hurricane specialist at NHC from 2005-2008, he prepared and issued official forecasts and warnings during the 2005 hurricane season with Hurricanes Dennis, Emily, Katrina, Rita and Wilma. Perhaps most notably, Dr. Knabb signed the advisory announcing that Katrina had become a major hurricane over the Gulf of Mexico. He also served as NHC's science and operations officer from 2001-2005.

Before he joined The Weather Channel, Dr. Knabb was the deputy director and director of operations of the Central Pacific Hurricane Center (CPHC) and NWS Forecast Office in Honolulu, Hawaii. While there, he led the development and implementation of the first-ever joint CPHC/FEMA hurricane preparedness course for emergency managers.

Throughout his career in NOAA, Dr. Knabb has been involved in emergency management, military and academia collaboration, technology incorporation, and public speaking and media interviews.

Dr. Knabb said his most memorable weather moment was on October 24, 2005 when Hurricane Wilma was crossing southern Florida.


weather.com
"I was the on-duty Hurricane Specialist at the National Hurricane Center, and I was watching the eyewall pass over my house where my wife and son were staying. I knew they were very safe in our well constructed home with hurricane shutters up, but it was still unnerving." Dr. Knabb adds, "Later that day I arrived home to just a downed fence and some fallen palm trees, and then hung out at my father's house with several members of our family during the power outage. We were all thankful our hurricane experience was nowhere near as painful as what others experienced that year."

Dr. Knabb is a member of the American Meteorological Society (AMS) and is part of the AMS Board of Government Meteorologists. He has published numerous works in scientific journals and as conference papers. He received his Ph.D in meteorology and his master's degree in meteorology from Florida State University and his bachelor's degree in atmospheric science from Purdue University.

He and his wife Rhonda of 22 years have a 7-year-old son, Parker. They will be joining him in Miami.

The Atlantic hurricane season is June 1 to Nov. 30. The Eastern Pacific season is from May 15 to Nov. 30.
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810. wunderkidcayman
17:30 GMT le 19 mai 2012
WARNING STATEMENT ABOVE IS NOT REAL
Member Since: 13 juin 2009 Posts: 2 Comments: 12712
809. wunderkidcayman
17:28 GMT le 19 mai 2012
soon we should expect

ZCZC MIATCPEP1 ALL
TTAA00 KNHC DDHHMM

BULLETIN
TROPICAL STORM ALBERTO ADVISORY NUMBER 1
NWS NATIONAL HURRICANE CENTER MIAMI FL AL012012
200 PM EDT SAT MAY 19 2012

...FIRST TROPICAL STORM OF THE 2012 NORTH ATLANTIC
HURRICANE SEASON FORMS AHEAD OF THE OFFICIAL SEASON START DATE...


SUMMARY OF 200 PM EDT...1600 UTC...INFORMATION
----------------------------------------------
LOCATION...32.3N 77.5W
ABOUT 146 MI... 235KM OF CHARLESTON,SOUTH CAROLINA
MAXIMUM SUSTAINED WINDS...40 MPH...64 KM/H
PRESENT MOVEMENT...W OR 240 DEGREES AT 5 MPH...7 KM/H
MINIMUM CENTRAL PRESSURE...1005 MB...29.68 INCHES
Member Since: 13 juin 2009 Posts: 2 Comments: 12712
808. aspectre
17:20 GMT le 19 mai 2012
NEW BLOG The below moved from comment402 due to slow loading.

159 aspectre: Wish I could have found a map which also contained the IceShelf grounding-lines. As bappit pointed out, if there ain't a LOT of ice pressing downward on the land or seabed now, the edge areas are gonna sink as isostatic rebound completes itself.
eg Large areas of the ice-shelves on the WeddelSea/RossSea/etc are floating, not grounded
170BaltimoreBrian: From what I understand the continental shelf dips downwards as one approaches the 'coast' of Antarctica.
It seems like isostatic rebound would be so great that the ultimate sea level rise would be affected. Over tens of thousands of years after the Antarctic Ice Sheets melted away global sea level might rise another 50feet
[15metres] as Antarctica's isostatic rebound displaced the temporary seas above it.
And if Antarctica rose so much, what other places would then fall? I guess those second-order effects would primarily be in the seabed around the Antarctic continent.


The portion of the continental shelf tilting downward toward the presentday Antarctic landmass is southwest of a ridge beneath the WeddelSea nearest to the presentday Antarctic landmass.
The rest of the WeddelSea generally tilts downward toward the open ocean from that ridge and the presentday Antarctic landmass.

Gotta remember that only the seabed where the ice-shelves are HEAVILY grounded by overlaying ice will rise above the new/future sea-level. eg Using "spherical cow" calculation:
If the shelf is grounded on the seabed that's 100metres below presentday, then then there has to a minimum of 330metres of ice piled on top of the ice below presentday sea-level for that seabed to rise to presentday sea-level.
But, even excluding temperature-rise seawater-expansion, since by that time the sea-level will have also risen 66metres, the ice piled on top will have to be at least 396metres thick for the former seabed to rise to that new/future sea-level.
So it would take a presentday total-thickness of at*least 500metres (100below plus ~400above) of ice grounding on the presentday seabed to melt in order for isostatic rebound to push that seabed above the new/future sea-level.

* I also didn't include the buoyancy of ice submerged in seawater. At the thicknesses/densities we're talking about, not enough to greatly affect the total thickness... but having enough of an effect that 500metres is the lower-bound minimum.

As a very rough approximation... Near the coastline, the thickness of grounded Antarctic ice above sea-level tends to be thicker where the depth of the seabed is shallower. (The small WeddelSea area mentioned above is an exception.) Ice-melt inland won't add continental uplift-displacement to seawater. Combining both with bappit's edge-depression effect, I assumed only an extra 6metre(20foot)rise due to that continental isostatic uplift -- ie ~10% of the AntarcticMelt-rise alone -- excluding temperature-increase seawater-expansion.
ie I used an average 72metre sea-rise average (in the linked comment) rather than the standard 66metre sea-rise average to account for isostatic rebound (and some depression of the presentday seabed) in that far off future.

You may be closer to being correct.
Either way, combining the average sea-level rise due to melting with the temperature-increase seawater-expansion and the change in the gravitational equipotential should produce interesting topography.

The BarentsSea would join the BalticSea to separate Scandinavia from Europe.


The Gulf of Mexico through the MissippiRiverValley to the lower OhioRiverValley and LakeOntario through the the St.LawrenceRiver to the AtlanticOcean would cause the easternUS to become a peninsula of the continentalUnitedStates.

I think the OhioValley and southeastward remain far too high above sea-level for the new Mississippi/ReelfootBay to join the new OntarioSea.

The ArcticOcean's KaraSea would nearly cut Russia in half, leaving the (Kustanay to)TurgayPass as a landbridge separating the KaraSea and the AralSea. The AralSea would join a CaspianSea joined through the Kuma-ManychDepression with the BlackSea to the MediterraneanSea to the Atlantic...

...nearly separating Europe from Asia. The SuezCanal area would be flooded over, creating a completely natural separation between Africa and the MiddleEast.
Member Since: 21 août 2007 Posts: 0 Comments: 4860
807. keithneese
17:16 GMT le 19 mai 2012
Quoting SouthDadeFish:
Hi everyone, I put together a blog entry on 93L and did my best to simplify the complex process of 93L becoming a "warm-core" cyclone. I would especially recommend it for anyone who is getting confused by this process and terminology. I also talk about track and intensity forecasts.

For anyone interested: Link


Excellent job on explaining the process. I have family on the coast of North Carolina, so I'm monitoring this system closely. Thanks for the blog update!
Member Since: 7 février 2008 Posts: 67 Comments: 186
806. JrWeathermanFL
17:13 GMT le 19 mai 2012
Quoting washingtonian115:
What does that mean?

It obviously means that High pressure expected to build over the S.E.U.S in a week or so. lol
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805. Barefootontherocks
17:13 GMT le 19 mai 2012
Ps. Great 93L posts, all of you. Thanks.
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804. AllStar17
17:12 GMT le 19 mai 2012
NEW BLOG IS UP
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803. Barefootontherocks
17:11 GMT le 19 mai 2012
"Isolated wet microbursts..."



Click image for text.
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802. TropicalAnalystwx13
17:11 GMT le 19 mai 2012
T-minus how-many-hours-93L-has-left-before-it-has-produced convection-for-12-hours until it is named Alberto.
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801. SouthDadeFish
17:11 GMT le 19 mai 2012
It looks like the upper-level low to the NE of 93L is starting to scoot off to the NE:

Link
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800. cg2916
17:11 GMT le 19 mai 2012
Hello everybody!

Wow, the tropics are already heating up. This one's close to home. Man, am I sure glad that I'm not going to the beach for another 2 weeks!
Member Since: 21 décembre 2007 Posts: 13 Comments: 3046
799. HurricaneDean07
17:11 GMT le 19 mai 2012
Quoting WxGeekVA:


Well, the eye wasn't just a short lived temporary feature....

Most tropical cyclones have an eye deature on radar. This is just another example
Member Since: 3 octobre 2010 Posts: 40 Comments: 4129
798. HurrikanEB
17:11 GMT le 19 mai 2012
Quoting hydrus:
Like Pat said tho, water near the coast is cool. If it turns out to be a hybrid system, it may have a chance to through some high winds and seas to the Carolina,s. Some areas had had a lot of rain, and flooding is possible in some areas.


For the month, Wilmington has been about on target for their average rainfall-- looks like they picked up about an inch in the last few days. But according to this week's drought monitor, a little bit more may not be such a bad thing, especially since it's a small system-- granted that it's down in FL/GE/SC that really needs it. But, that southeast corner of coastal NC is technically in a light-moderate drought too.
Member Since: 2 mai 2008 Posts: 12 Comments: 1344
797. WunderAlertBot (Admin)
17:11 GMT le 19 mai 2012
JeffMasters has created a new entry.
796. Hurricanes101
17:10 GMT le 19 mai 2012
Also everytime I go to the atcf site, even the ones that have been linked in here the last few days, it shows last years information


Is there a site that has coordinates like the atcf that is more reliable?
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795. ScottLincoln
17:10 GMT le 19 mai 2012
Quoting washingtonian115:
What does that mean?


In regards to what?
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794. WxGeekVA
17:08 GMT le 19 mai 2012


Well, the eye wasn't just a short lived temporary feature....
Member Since: 3 septembre 2011 Posts: 13 Comments: 3477
793. washingtonian115
17:07 GMT le 19 mai 2012
Quoting hydrus:
High pressure expected to build over the S.E.U.S in a week or so.
What does that mean?
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792. pottery
17:07 GMT le 19 mai 2012
Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:

Oh, you know, the regular climate change debates. We've actually seen very little trolls.

Very little trolls are the Absolute worst kind....
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791. nigel20
17:07 GMT le 19 mai 2012
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790. KEEPEROFTHEGATE (Mod)
17:06 GMT le 19 mai 2012
No Active Tropical Warnings
May-19-12, 1:00:01 PM | Maritime.CDO@navy.mil (FWC-N CDO)
As of Sat, 19 May 2012 17:00:01 GMT
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789. hydrus
17:05 GMT le 19 mai 2012
High pressure expected to build over the S.E.U.S in a week or so.
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788. AllStar17
17:04 GMT le 19 mai 2012
Nice to see a lot of people coming back! Seems we could have an early start to the Atlantic Season!

(CLICK TO ENLARGE)

Member Since: 29 juin 2009 Posts: 13 Comments: 5315
787. WxGeekVA
17:03 GMT le 19 mai 2012
Quoting Patrap:


Here

AL932012 - INVEST


I was talking about here, but still thanks!

Tropical Cyclone Imagery - Storm Floaters
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786. Patrap
17:01 GMT le 19 mai 2012
Tropical Cyclone Imagery - Storm Floaters
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785. Patrap
17:01 GMT le 19 mai 2012
Quoting WxGeekVA:
Where are the NHC floaters?


Here

AL932012 - INVEST
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784. JrWeathermanFL
17:00 GMT le 19 mai 2012
Quoting weatherh98:
Somebody has to say it.

Florida hit?!?! :)

I was gonna say that! lol
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783. KEEPEROFTHEGATE (Mod)
17:00 GMT le 19 mai 2012
Member Since: 15 juillet 2006 Posts: 176 Comments: 55671
782. WxGeekVA
17:00 GMT le 19 mai 2012
Where are the NHC floaters?
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781. wunderkidcayman
16:59 GMT le 19 mai 2012
Quoting Patrap:
NHC Director Knabb will have a Busy Day with his co-horts seems
when?
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780. Patrap
16:59 GMT le 19 mai 2012
Im sure that any Fla Strike must first have the Guv'na's team look it over before he makes a decision to allow the storm to Strike.

He is Skeletor ya know?
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779. weatherh98
16:57 GMT le 19 mai 2012
Somebody has to say it.

Florida hit?!?! :)
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778. hydrus
16:56 GMT le 19 mai 2012
Like Pat said tho, water near the coast is cool. If it turns out to be a hybrid system, it may have a chance to through some high winds and seas to the Carolina,s. Some areas had had a lot of rain, and flooding is possible in some areas.
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777. washingtonian115
16:56 GMT le 19 mai 2012
I'm surprised HYPU!weather hasn't paid any attention to this.Instead their to busy blabbing about the eclipse.
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776. Patrap
16:55 GMT le 19 mai 2012
NHC Director Knabb will have a Busy Day with his co-horts seems
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775. nigel20
16:55 GMT le 19 mai 2012
May 19, 2012

Daily SOI: -0.29
30 day SOI: 2.60
Link
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774. MiamiHurricanes09
16:55 GMT le 19 mai 2012
Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:

Oh, you know, the regular climate change debates. We've actually seen very little trolls.
No trolls is great to see, climate change debates not so much LOL. Good to see you're still around.

Quoting Ameister12:

I've been doing good. I'm very excited about hurricane season coming up soon.
Great to hear! Seems as if this upcoming season will be somewhat lackluster, but that's always great from the layman perspective. You know how the ol' saying goes, though: "it only takes one".
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773. KEEPEROFTHEGATE (Mod)
16:55 GMT le 19 mai 2012
POSS T.C.F.A.
XX/INV/93L
MARK
32.25N/77.47W
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772. Ameister12
16:55 GMT le 19 mai 2012
What a pretty looking invest.
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771. Patrap
16:55 GMT le 19 mai 2012
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770. SouthDadeFish
16:54 GMT le 19 mai 2012
Hi everyone, I put together a blog entry on 93L and did my best to simplify the complex process of 93L becoming a "warm-core" cyclone. I would especially recommend it for anyone who is getting confused by this process and terminology. I also talk about track and intensity forecasts.

For anyone interested: Link
Member Since: 12 août 2007 Posts: 11 Comments: 2448
769. Hurricanes101
16:54 GMT le 19 mai 2012
not being able to access the atcf site information is very frustrating
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768. MrstormX
16:54 GMT le 19 mai 2012
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767. WxGeekVA
16:54 GMT le 19 mai 2012



And now, let the screaming about Rapid Intensification begin!
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766. carolinabelle
16:52 GMT le 19 mai 2012
Hey all! So, 93L, huh? Don't usually pay much attention this early in the season, but sitting in the Charleston area, can't help but be a little curious about this one! Will be interesting to see what happens over the next 24h.
Member Since: 10 juillet 2001 Posts: 5 Comments: 121
765. MiamiHurricanes09
16:51 GMT le 19 mai 2012
Quoting CybrTeddy:


Hey Miami! Glad to see you aboard for another season, looking forward to it. This appears to a purely tropical system. The main factor here is going to be time, how much can it intensify before it makes landfall along the US coast? The NHC is going to be looking for consistency in convection, which will probably take a few more hours, but they'll probably be quicker to declare 93L because it's closer to the coast compared to 92L which was in the middle of nowhere (though, was probably a sub-tropical storm IMO)
What's up Teddy? Glad to be back for the season!

Convective persistence will be very important in the development of this system. We'll have to see how it reacts to the upcoming diurnal minimum since it is still a rather weak feature, and if it will be able to maintain convective activity (and fire some too) into the night hours. Classification by tonight seems very plausible, should convection persist, of course.
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764. weatherh98
16:51 GMT le 19 mai 2012
The gulf steam will be able to keep the flow of warm water pumping into the system
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763. BaltimoreBrian
16:51 GMT le 19 mai 2012
I think the high pressure will build to the north and drive it WSW for a while. To around 32 N 80 W by this time tomorrow.
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762. Patrap
16:51 GMT le 19 mai 2012
2km Storm Relative IR Imagery with BD Enhancement Curve

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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

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